Best treatment for Macular degeneration (ARMD)  available at Guru Gobind Singh International Eye Centre, Delhi,India

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD) or Macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness among adults. Although the specific causes of AMD remain unknown, these include a combination of intrinsic (i genetic predisposition) and extrinsic ( environmental insult such as toxic and/or photooxidative damage) factors that have their primary impact on the Retina Layer (Retinal pigment epithelium)

Risk factors

The risk increases with aging. Other risk factors include: Smoking,Obesity. Research studies suggest a link between obesity and the progression of early and intermediate stage AMD to advanced AMD. Race. Whites are much more likely to lose vision from AMD than African Americans. People with a family history of AMD are at higher risk of getting the disease.Women appear to be at greater risk than men.


There are two main types of AMD:- Dry and Wet

Dry AMD occurs when the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down, gradually blurring central vision in the affected eye. Dry AMD generally affects both eyes, but vision can be lost in one eye while the other eye seems unaffected.The most common symptom of dry AMD is slightly blurred vision like difficulty in recognizing faces, more light for reading and other tasks. The most common early signs of dry AMD is drusen. Drusen are yellow deposits under the retina.

Dry AMD has three stages, all of which may occur in one or both eyes:

1. Early AMD:- People with early AMD have either several small drusen or a few medium-sized drusen. At this stage, there are no symptoms and no vision loss.
2. Intermediate AMD:- People with intermediate AMD have either many medium-sized drusen or one or more large drusen. Some people see a blurred spot in the center of their vision. More light may be needed for reading and other tasks.
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